Carbon Footprint Scopes
The Greenhouse Gas Protocol categorizes GHG emissions into three scopes which represent how the gases are emitted and how to measure and control each.
Scope 1 is defined as direct GHG emissions that are controlled by your organisation. This typically includes:
- direct fuel consumption (heating from oil and gas, process equipment oil and gas consumption, company vehicles)
- manufacturing direct emissions from burning fuel
- refrigerant systems
- on-site waste facilities
- fugitive emissions (e.g. fire suppression systems, aerosols, solvent cleaning, foam blowing)
Scope 2 is defined as indirect GHG emissions that result from purchased electricity, heat, or steam used to power the facility’s lighting, HVAC equipment, water heaters, IT equipment etc.
Scope 3 is defined as indirect GHG emissions that a company can influence but does not control. This is often the largest scope and hardest to quantify. In this category are many things as per the diagram above, and typically transportion of raw materials, distribution of your products by suppliers, business travel, employees commuting to work in vehicles not owned by the company, and transportation of purchased fuels.